Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide(PN50G) evokes A549 cell apoptosis by the ROS/AMPK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to suppress tumor growth
Since the strong antineoplastic potential against A549 cells of Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN50G) in vitro has been proven previously, the definitive mechanism of PN50G-induced apoptosis in A549 cells in vivo was further investigated. All the results indicated that PN50G significantly suppressed tumor growth in A549 tumor-bearing mice. Tumor cells treated with PN50G were arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and marked changes in the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin D1, cyclin A and cyclin B1, were observed. Moreover, western blotting anaylsis indicated that PN50G triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, for an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-3 and PRPP in A549 tumor cells were observed. And the decrease in the expression of the translation related protein P70S6K was observed, because PN50G activated AMPK phosphorylation, but inhibited PI3K/AKT phosphorylation and suppressed the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) induced by PN50G. In vivo imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice, and the results indicated that PN50G significantly increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, it indicated that PN50G promoted the protein expression of Beclin 1 and LC-3 in a dose-dependent manner. All the results suggested that PN50G-mediated apoptosis and autophagy of A549 tumor cells in vivo mainly involved in the mitochondrial pathway and the AMPK/PI3K/mTOR pathway.