Graphene and its electrochemistry – an update
The electrochemistry of graphene and its derivatives has been extensively researched in recent years. In the aspect of graphene preparation methods, the efficiencies of the top-down electrochemical exfoliation of graphite, the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and the electrochemical delamination of CVD grown graphene, are currently on par with conventional procedures. Electrochemical analysis of graphene oxide has revealed an unexpected inherent redox activity with, in some cases, an astonishing chemical reversibility. Furthermore, graphene modified with p-block elements has shown impressive electrocatalytic performances in processes which have been historically dominated by metal-based catalysts. Further progress has also been achieved in the practical usage of graphene in sensing and biosensing applications. This review is an update of our previous article in Chem. Soc. Rev. 2010, 39, 4146–4157, with special focus on the developments over the past two years.