35Cl solid-state NMR spectroscopy of HCl pharmaceuticals and their polymorphs in bulk and dosage forms
Herein, we demonstrate the use of 35Cl solid-state NMR (SSNMR) at moderate (9.4 T) and high (21.1 T) magnetic field strengths for the structural fingerprinting of hydrochloride (HCl) salts of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and several polymorphs, in both bulk and dosage forms. These include salts of metformin, diphenhydramine, nicardipine, isoxsuprine and mexiletine (the crystal structure of a mexiletine polymorph is reported herein). Signal-enhancing pulse sequences utilizing frequency-swept pulses and broadband cross polarization were employed to significantly decrease experimental times. In most cases, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) patterns and 13C SSNMR spectra are not useful for characterizing the APIs in dosage forms, due to interfering signals from the excipients (e.g., fillers and binders). However, it is demonstrated that 35Cl SSNMR can be used independently to fingerprint individual APIs and to detect the nature of the solid phases in the dosage forms without interference from the excipient. 35Cl SSNMR experiments were also conducted on systems with multiple polymorphs (i.e., isoxsuprine HCl and mexiletine HCl), and the solid phases of these APIs in their dosage forms are identified. 35Cl EFG tensors obtained from plane-wave DFT calculations on model systems are also presented and discussed in the context of their relationship to the local hydrogen-bonding environments of the chloride ions. This methodology shows great promise for identification of solid phases and detection of polymorphs and impurities, which are matters of importance for quality assurance in the pharmaceutical industry.