Recent advances in the development and application of nanoelectrodes
Nanoelectrodes have key advantages compared to electrodes of conventional size and are the tool of choice for numerous applications in both fundamental electrochemistry research and bioelectrochemical analysis. This Minireview summarizes recent advances in the development, characterization, and use of nanoelectrodes in nanoscale electroanalytical chemistry. Methods of nanoelectrode preparation include laser-pulled glass-sealed metal nanoelectrodes, mass-produced nanoelectrodes, carbon nanotube based and carbon-filled nanopipettes, and tunneling nanoelectrodes. Several new topics of their recent application are covered, which include the use of nanoelectrodes for electrochemical imaging at ultrahigh spatial resolution, imaging with nanoelectrodes and nanopipettes, electrochemical analysis of single cells, single enzymes, and single nanoparticles, and the use of nanoelectrodes to understand single nanobubbles.