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Issue 11, 2016
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A two-photon fluorescent probe for bio-imaging of formaldehyde in living cells and tissues

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Abstract

Formaldehyde (FA) plays an important role in living systems as a reactive carbonyl species (RCS). An abnormal degree of FA is known to induce neurodegeneration, cognitive decrease and memory loss owing to the formation of strong cross-link DNA and protein and other molecules. The development of efficient methods for biological FA detection is of great biomedical importance. Although a few one-photon FA fluorescent probes have been reported for imaging in living cells, probes excited by two photons are more suitable for bio-imaging due to their low background fluorescence, less photobleaching, and deep penetration depth. In this study, a two-photon fluorescent probe FATP1 for FA detection and bio-imaging in living cells and tissues was reported. The detection is based on the 2-aza-Cope sigmatropic rearrangement followed by elimination to release the fluorophore, resulting in both one- and two-photon excited fluorescence increase. The probe FATP1 showed a high sensitivity to FA with a detection limit of 0.2 μM. Moreover, FATP1 enabled the two-photon bio-imaging of FA in live HEK-293 cells and tissues with tissue-imaging depths of 40–170 μm. Furthermore, FATP1 could be applied for the monitoring of endogenous FA in live MCF-7 cells, presaging its practical applications in biological systems.

Graphical abstract: A two-photon fluorescent probe for bio-imaging of formaldehyde in living cells and tissues

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
26 Feb 2016
Accepted
14 Apr 2016
First published
14 Apr 2016

Analyst, 2016,141, 3395-3402
Article type
Paper

A two-photon fluorescent probe for bio-imaging of formaldehyde in living cells and tissues

J. Li, Q. Wang, L. Yuan, Y. Wu, X. Hu, X. Zhang and W. Tan, Analyst, 2016, 141, 3395
DOI: 10.1039/C6AN00473C

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