A unique dual recognition hairpin probe mediated fluorescence amplification method for sensitive detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase and endonuclease IV activities†
Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) and endonuclease IV (Endo IV) play cooperative roles in uracil base-excision repair (UBER) and inactivity of either will interrupt the UBER to cause disease. Detection of UDG and Endo IV activities is crucial to evaluate the UBER process in fundamental research and diagnostic application. Here, a unique dual recognition hairpin probe mediated fluorescence amplification method was developed for sensitively and selectively detecting UDG and Endo IV activities. For detecting UDG activity, the uracil base in the probe was excised by the target enzyme to generate an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site, achieving the UDG recognition. Then, the AP site was cleaved by a tool enzyme Endo IV, releasing a primer to trigger rolling circle amplification (RCA) reaction. Finally, the RCA reaction produced numerous repeated G-quadruplex sequences, which interacted with N-methyl-mesoporphyrin IX to generate an enhanced fluorescence signal. Alternatively, for detecting Endo IV activity, the uracil base in the probe was first converted into an AP site by a tool enzyme UDG. Next, the AP site was cleaved by the target enzyme, achieving the Endo IV recognition. The signal was then generated and amplified in the same way as those in the UDG activity assay. The detection limits were as low as 0.00017 U mL−1 for UDG and 0.11 U mL−1 for Endo IV, respectively. Moreover, UDG and Endo IV can be well distinguished from their analogs. This method is beneficial for properly evaluating the UBER process in function studies and disease prognoses.