Toxic effect comparison of three typical sterilization nanoparticles on oxidative stress and immune inflammation response in rats
Zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are used as sterilization materials to enhance the performance of disinfectants. Here, the toxicological effects on the liver, spleen, thymus gland, immune function and inflammatory responses in rats induced by these nanoparticles were investigated after intratracheal instillation in male Wistar rats. Moreover, the relationships between the particle size, particle crystalline structure, chemical composition, chemical stability and toxicological effects of these typical nanoparticles in rats were explored. Exposure to nanoparticles increased the oxidative stress level in peripheral blood and the homogenates of the liver, spleen and thymus as well as disorders in regulating the cytokine network and blood cell count in the peripheral blood. Furthermore, the histopathological study revealed that pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles produced persistent, progressive liver inflammatory responses and cell necrosis, while no observable damage was found in the kidney, thymus gland or spleen tissue from the experimental groups. Our results demonstrate that oxidative stress might be important for inducing the toxic effects of these nanoparticles, and three nanoparticles can influence the immune function of rats. A comparative analysis of the toxic effects of nanomaterials demonstrated significant differences. Nano-ZnO induced the most significant toxicity, whereas nano-TiO2 induced the least. Particle composition and chemical stability probably played a primary role in the toxicological effects of different nanoparticles.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Nanotoxicology