Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes
Efficiency is crucial for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) to be energy-saving and to have a long lifetime for display and solid state lighting applications. Numerous approaches have been proposed to attain high efficiency OLEDs through the synthesis of novel organic materials, the design of light extraction structures and the design of efficiency-effective device architectures. In this report, we first summarise the efficiency records of OLED devices using fluorescent, phosphorescent, and thermally activated delay fluorescent materials. Importantly, we review all the available efficiency-effective device architectural approaches, which include using thin layer structures, low carrier injection barriers, high carrier mobility, balanced carrier injection, effective carrier confinement, effective host-to-guest energy transfer, effective recombination zone, effective exciton generation on the host, effective exciton confinement, p–i–n structures, and tandem structures. It is hoped that better device structures can therefore be devised upon suitable device engineering to achieve higher efficiency for OLED devices.
- This article is part of the themed collection: JMC C Top Picks collection: Recent progress in light emitting diodes