Understanding cell homing-based tissue regeneration from the perspective of materials
Homing of cells to their target organs for tissue defect repair poses a significant challenge to biomaterials scientists and tissue engineers, due to the low efficiency of homing of effective cells to defect sites as well as the difficulties in coordinating cell migration, adhesion, spreading and differentiations. Recent advances in biomaterials have successfully improved the efficiency of homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell homing-based tissue regeneration. In this review, the process of cell-homing based tissue regeneration was discussed from three different perspectives, including cell surface engineering, scaffold optimization and signaling molecule interactions. Cell surface modification by using polymeric materials offers a simple way to administrate cell migration. Besides, the ordered or anisotropic structures are proved to be more efficient for cell adhesion, spreading and infiltration than relatively random or isotropy structures. Moreover, the coordinated release of different growth factors (GFs), e.g. achieved via core–shell microspheres, can orchestrate the biological processes, including cell growth and differentiations, and significantly enhance the osteogenic differentiation of low population density of MSCs. These developments in biomaterials are not only important for the fundamental understanding of material–cell interactions, but also help understand cell homing-based tissue regeneration from the perspective of materials, which is crucial for the design and fabrication of a new generation of highly functional biomaterials for tissue regeneration.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2015 Journal of Materials Chemistry B Hot Papers