Metallic nanoparticles as synthetic building blocks for cancer diagnostics: from materials design to molecular imaging applications
Metallic nanoparticles have been a matter of intense exploration within the last decade due to their potential to change the face of the medical world through their role as ‘nanotheranostics’. Their envisaged capacity to act as synthetic platforms for a multimodal imaging approach to diagnosis and treatment of degenerative diseases, including cancer, remains a matter of lively debate. Certain synthetic metal-based nanomaterials, e.g. gold and iron oxide nanoparticles, are already in clinical use or under advanced preclinical investigations following in vitro and in vivo preclinical imaging success. We surveyed the recent publications landscape including those reported metallic nanoparticles having established applications in vivo, as well as some of the new metallic nanoparticles which, despite their potential as cancer nanodiagnostics, are currently awaiting in vivo evaluation. The objective of this review is to highlight the current metallic nanoparticles and/or alloys as well as their derivatives with multimodal imaging potential, focusing on their chemistry as a springboard to discussing their role in the future of nanomedicines design. We also highlight here some of the fundamentals of molecular and nano-imaging techniques of relevance to the metal-based colloids, alloys and metallic nanoparticles discerning their future prospects as cancer nanodiagnostics. The current approaches for metallic and alloy surface derivatisation, aiming to achieve functional and biocompatible materials for multimodal bioimaging applications, are discussed in order to bring about some new perspectives on the efficiency of metallic nanoparticles as synthetic scaffolds for imaging probe design and forecast their future use in medical imaging techniques (optical, CT, PET, SPECT and MRI).
- This article is part of the themed collection: Highlighting materials research in the UK for biology and medicine