Towards the use of metal–organic frameworks for water reuse: a review of the recent advances in the field of organic pollutants removal and degradation and the next steps in the field
Water reuse is becoming increasingly important as more and more areas in the world are facing water stress issues. Treatment of wastewater to attain the purity required for various usages from culture irrigation to drinking water is therefore key. Several water treatment options are already in place and while we will continue to use them, parallel efforts are required to: (i) address the removal of the most persistent chemicals in water and (ii) provide solutions for local communities. Recently, several studies on the use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) for the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of organics in water have been reported. This enthusiasm originates from the large porosity and chemical tunability of MOFs – beneficial for adsorption – as well as their catalytic nature – beneficial for degradation. The present review proposes a comprehensive and critical analysis of the most recent studies on the use of MOFs for organics adsorption and photocatalytic degradation. The potential to use MOFs to catalyze the production of H2 from organic molecules, like water contaminants, is also addressed. Overall, the discussion is organised based on the type of organic pollutants targeted and encompasses those released in industrial, domestic and agricultural wastewater streams.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Highlighting materials research in the UK for energy and sustainability