Large formamidinium lead trihalide perovskite solar cells using chemical vapor deposition with high reproducibility and tunable chlorine concentrations†
Chemical vapor deposition is an inexpensive way to batch-process solar cells with good uniformity and facilitates low-cost production. Formamidinium lead iodide perovskite has a smaller energy band gap and greater potential efficiency than the widely studied methylammonium lead iodide perovskite and better temperature stability. This work is the first demonstration of vapor deposition of formamidinium-based perovskite. A self-limiting perovskite formation process is recommended, with efficiencies as high as 14.2% and stability up to 155 days after fabrication. Using this process, a batch of semi-transparent solar cells with a large area of 1 cm2 was fabricated. We monitored the growth of perovskite in real time and provide insight that may not be accessible for a solution based process. We directly measured chlorine in perovskite films and correlated the concentration of chlorine with efficiency and stability.