Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent–solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells†
The room-temperature solvent–solvent extraction (SSE) concept is used for the deposition of hybrid-perovskite thin films over large areas. In this simple process, perovskite precursor solution is spin-coated onto a substrate, and instead of the conventional thermal annealing treatment, the coated substrate is immediately immersed in a bath of another solvent at room temperature. This results in efficient extraction of the precursor-solvent and induces rapid crystallization of uniform, ultra-smooth perovskite thin films. The mechanisms involved in the SSE process are studied further, and its versatility in depositing high quality thin films of controlled thicknesses (20 to 700 nm) and various compositions (CH3NH3PbI(3−x)Brx; x = 0, 1, 2, or 3) is demonstrated. Planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on SSE-deposited CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films deliver power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 15.2%, and most notably an average PCE of 10.1% for PSCs with sub-100 nm semi-transparent perovskite thin films. The SSE method has generic appeal, and its key attributes—room-temperature process, rapid crystallization, large-area uniform deposition, film-thickness control, ultra-smoothness, and compositional versatility—make the SSE method potentially suitable for roll-to-roll scalable processing of hybrid-perovskite thin films for future multifunctional PSCs.