HOCl can appear in the mitochondria of macrophages during bacterial infection as revealed by a sensitive mitochondrial-targeting fluorescent probe†
Macrophages, important cells of the innate immune system, can produce abundant HOCl in the cytoplasm to fight against bacteria. Recent studies suggest that mitochondria in macrophages play a role in antibacterial responses. During bacterial infection, however, it is uncertain whether HOCl is present in the mitochondria, mainly because of the lack of a suitable research method. Herein, by developing a new mitochondrial-targeting fluorescent HOCl probe, combined with confocal fluorescence imaging, we show for the first time that HOCl can appear in the mitochondria of macrophages (Raw264.7 cells) during bacterial infection, as confirmed with non-phagocytic cells and inhibitors as control experiments. Moreover, the developed probe exhibits an accurate mitochondrial-targeting ability, a fast response, and high selectivity and sensitivity (detection limit 9 nM), and is thus expected to be employed for further revealing the biological function of subcellular mitochondria.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Global challenges: Health & Food