Formation of defects in the graphite oxidization process: a positron study
High-resolution positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and two-detector coincidence Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (2D-DBAR) measurements on graphite and its oxide derivatives for defect information, differing in oxidization agents, are reported. Positron measurements were found to be very effective in the investigation of defects in graphite and its derivatives. Positrons are mainly annihilated in vacancy-like defects on the particle surface and in large open-volume holes associated with the interface of graphite and graphite oxide. Different types of defects have been detected for unexfoliated graphite oxide and exfoliated graphene oxide based on 2D-DBAR measurements, namely the vacancy cluster and vacancy-oxygen complexes. It is also interesting to observe that the calculated large open-volume diameter of graphene oxide coincides with the distance between the layers from the XRD investigation, which indicates that the annihilation of the long-lived lifetime component τ3 might take place in the area between the graphene layers; no large open-volume hole has been detected.