Local surface modification via confined electrochemical deposition with FluidFM†
We show how the association of AFM with microfluidics, namely FluidFM, is a valuable approach for the versatile electrochemical creation of patterns having diverse shapes and topologies. Localization of the electrochemical reactions was obtained by confining the electroactive species in the microchannel and dispensing them at a precise position through the aperture of FluidFM probes. The force feedback enabled a gentle approach onto the electrode as well as a gentle contact during both the lithography procedure as well as in situ topographical AFM imaging just before or after deposition. As model systems, we demonstrate electroplating of copper and electrografting of organic moieties by reduction of aryldiazonium salts.