Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD): a perspective on worldwide production, reserves and its role in electrochemistry
Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is the critical component of the cathode material in modern alkaline, lithium, and sodium batteries including electrochemical capacitors and hydrogen production. In terms of environmental and cost considerations, EMD is likely to remain the preferred energy material for the future generation, as it has been in recent decades. Diminishing fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have created the need to derive energy from sustainable sources. The energy storage device from alternative and inexpensive sources, such as low grade manganese ores, has a niche in the renewable energy and portable electronics market. Despite vast manganese sources along with the current activity in producing modified EMD materials from secondary sources, to a surprise, India mostly imports EMD to meet its demand. Keeping this in view, a comprehensive review has been prepared on the synthesis, physical and electrochemical characterization of EMD produced from synthetic solutions and secondary sources. This review summarizes the available EMD sources in the world including Indian deposits and the recent investigations of fundamental advances in understanding the electrochemical mechanism involved in aqueous rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors, thus leading to an improved energy storage performance, which is essential for their long term use in storing renewable energy supply.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Nanoscience and nanotechnology in electrochemistry