Phosphorylation of bio-based compounds: the state of the art
Over the last few years, more and more papers have been devoted to phosphorus-containing polymers, mainly due to their fire resistance, excellent chelating and metal-adhesion properties. Nevertheless, sustainability, reduction of environmental impacts and green chemistry are increasingly guiding the development of the next generation of materials. The use of bio-based polymer matrices might allow the reduction of environmental impacts by using renewable carbon and by achieving more easily biodegradable or reusable materials. The aim of this review is to present both fundamental and applied research on the phosphorylation of renewable resources, through reactions on naturally occurring functions, and their use in biobased polymer chemistry and applications. In the first section, different strategies for the introduction of phosphorus-containing functions on organic backbones are described. In the following sections, the main families of chemicals based on renewable resources are covered: namely polysaccharides (cellulose, chitosan, starch, dextran etc.), biophenols (lignins, biobased phenolic compounds, cardanol etc.), triglycerides (oils, glycerol) and hydroxy acid compounds.