Evaluation of the charge transfer efficiency of organic thin-film photovoltaic devices fabricated using a photoprecursor approach†
Recently, a unique ‘photoprecursor approach’ was reported as a new option to fabricate a p-i-n triple-layer organic photovoltaic device (OPV) through solution processes. By fabricating the p-i-n architecture using two kinds of photoprecursors and a [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the donor and the acceptor, the p-i-n OPVs afforded a higher photovoltaic efficiency than the corresponding p–n devices and i-devices, while the photovoltaic efficiency of p-i-n OPVs depended on the photoprecursors. In this work, the charge transfer efficiency of the i-devices composed of the photoprecursors and PC71BM was investigated using high-sensitivity fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with a time-correlated single photon counting technique to elucidate the photovoltaic efficiency depending on the photoprecursors and the effects of the p-i-n architecture. The spatially resolved fluorescence images and fluorescence lifetime measurements clearly indicated that the compatibility of the photoprecursors with PC71BM influences the charge transfer and the photovoltaic efficiencies. Although the charge transfer efficiency of the i-device was quite high, the photovoltaic efficiency of the i-device was much lower than that of the p-i-n device. These results imply that the carrier generation and carrier transportation efficiencies can be increased by fabricating the p-i-n architecture.