Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 21, 2015
Previous Article Next Article

Phase stability in nanoscale material systems: extension from bulk phase diagrams

Author affiliations

Abstract

Phase diagrams of multi-component systems are critical for the development and engineering of material alloys for all technological applications. At nano dimensions, surfaces (and interfaces) play a significant role in changing equilibrium thermodynamics and phase stability. In this work, it is shown that these surfaces at small dimensions affect the relative equilibrium thermodynamics of the different phases. The CALPHAD approach for material surfaces (also termed “nano-CALPHAD”) is employed to investigate these changes in three binary systems by calculating their phase diagrams at nano dimensions and comparing them with their bulk counterparts. The surface energy contribution, which is the dominant factor in causing these changes, is evaluated using the spherical particle approximation. It is first validated with the Au–Si system for which experimental data on phase stability of spherical nano-sized particles is available, and then extended to calculate phase diagrams of similarly sized particles of Ge–Si and Al–Cu. Additionally, the surface energies of the associated compounds are calculated using DFT, and integrated into the thermodynamic model of the respective binary systems. In this work we found changes in miscibilities, reaction compositions of about 5 at%, and solubility temperatures ranging from 100–200 K for particles of sizes 5 nm, indicating the importance of phase equilibrium analysis at nano dimensions.

Graphical abstract: Phase stability in nanoscale material systems: extension from bulk phase diagrams

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
09 Mar 2015
Accepted
15 Apr 2015
First published
22 Apr 2015

This article is Open Access

Nanoscale, 2015,7, 9868-9877
Article type
Paper

Phase stability in nanoscale material systems: extension from bulk phase diagrams

S. Bajaj, M. G. Haverty, R. Arróyave, W. A. Goddard III FRSC and S. Shankar, Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 9868
DOI: 10.1039/C5NR01535A

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

  • For reproduction of material from NJC:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
    [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
  • For reproduction of material from PPS:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements