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Issue 14, 2015
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Understanding the conductive channel evolution in Na:WO3−x-based planar devices

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Abstract

An ion migration process in a solid electrolyte is important for ion-based functional devices, such as fuel cells, batteries, electrochromics, gas sensors, and resistive switching systems. In this study, a planar sandwich structure is prepared by depositing tungsten oxide (WO3−x) films on a soda-lime glass substrate, from which Na+ diffuses into the WO3−x films during the deposition. The entire process of Na+ migration driven by an alternating electric field is visualized in the Na-doped WO3−x films in the form of conductive channel by in situ optical imaging combined with infrared spectroscopy and near-field imaging techniques. A reversible change of geometry between a parabolic and a bar channel is observed with the resistance change of the devices. The peculiar channel evolution is interpreted by a thermal-stress-induced mechanical deformation of the films and an asymmetric Na+ mobility between the parabolic and the bar channels. These results exemplify a typical ion migration process driven by an alternating electric field in a solid electrolyte with a low ion mobility and are expected to be beneficial to improve the controllability of the ion migration in ion-based functional devices, such as resistive switching devices.

Graphical abstract: Understanding the conductive channel evolution in Na:WO3−x-based planar devices

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
22 Dec 2014
Accepted
25 Feb 2015
First published
02 Mar 2015

Nanoscale, 2015,7, 6023-6030
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Understanding the conductive channel evolution in Na:WO3−x-based planar devices

D. Shang, P. Li, T. Wang, E. Carria, J. Sun, B. Shen, T. Taubner, I. Valov, R. Waser and M. Wuttig, Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 6023
DOI: 10.1039/C4NR07545E

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