Tailoring nanoscale properties of tungsten oxide for inkjet printed electrochromic devices†
This paper focuses on the engineering procedures governing the synthesis of tungsten oxide nanocrystals and the formulation of printable dispersions for electrochromic applications. By that means, we aim to stress the relevancy of a proper design strategy that results in improved physicochemical properties of nanoparticle loaded inks. In the present study inkjet printable nanostructured tungsten oxide particles were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal processes using pure or acidified aqueous sol–gel precursors. Based on the proposed scheme, the structure and morphology of the nanoparticles were tailored to ensure the desired printability and electrochromic performance. The developed nanomaterials with specified structures effectively improved the electrochemical response of printed films, resulting in 2.5 times higher optical modulation and 2 times faster coloration time when compared with pure amorphous films.