Translating endoplasmic reticulum biology into the clinic: a role for ER-targeted natural products?
ER stress has been identified as a hallmark, and sometimes trigger, of several pathologies, notably cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Among the molecules described in literature known to affect ER function, the majority are natural products, suggesting that natural molecules may constitute a significant arsenal of chemical entities for modulating this cellular target. In this review, we will start by presenting the current knowledge of ER biology and the hallmarks of ER stress, thus paving the way for presenting the natural products that have been described as being ER modulators, either stress inducers or ER protectors. The chemistry, distribution and mechanism of action of these compounds will be presented and discussed.