The PI3K/AKT/mTOR interactive pathway†
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway is hyperactivated or altered in many cancer types and regulates a broad range of cellular processes including survival, proliferation, growth, metabolism, angiogenesis and metastasis. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is regulated by a wide-range of upstream signalling proteins and it regulates many downstream effectors by collaborating with various compensatory signalling pathways, primarily with RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. Limited clinical success of the available targeted therapeutic agents and challenges mediated by tumour heterogeneity across different cancer types emphasize the importance of alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the design of effective personalized treatment strategies. Here we report a comprehensive PI3K/AKT/mTOR network that represents the intricate crosstalk between compensatory pathways, which can be utilized to study the AKT signalling mechanism in detail and improve the personalized combinatorial therapeutic strategies.