Single-virus force spectroscopy unravels molecular details of virus infection
Virus infection is a multistep process that has significant effects on the structure and function of both the virus and the host cell. The first steps of virus replication include cell binding, entry and release of the viral genome. Single-virus force spectroscopy (SVFS) has become a promising tool to understand the molecular details of those steps. SVFS data complemented by biochemical and biophysical, including theoretical modeling approaches provide valuable insights into molecular events that accompany virus infection. Properties of virus–cell interaction as well as structural alterations of the virus essential for infection can be investigated on a quantitative level. Here we review applications of SVFS to virus binding, structure and mechanics. We demonstrate that SVFS offers unexpected new insights not accessible by other methods.