Curcumin and its analogues: a potential natural compound against HIV infection and AIDS
No safe and effective cure currently exists for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, antiretroviral therapy can prolong the lives of HIV patients and lowers the secondary infections. Natural compounds, which are considered to be pleiotropic molecules, could be useful against HIV. Curcumin, a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can be used for the treatment of several diseases including HIV-AIDS because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and antibacterial nature. In this review we have summarized that how curcumin and its analogues inhibit the infection and replication of viral genes and prevent multiplicity of HIV. They are inhibitors of HIV protease and integrase. Curcumin also inhibits Tat transactivation of the HIV1-LTR genome, inflammatory molecules (interleukins, TNF-α, NF-κB, COX-2) and HIV associated various kinases including tyrosine kinase, PAK1, MAPK, PKC, cdk and others. In addition, curcumin enhances the effect of conventional therapeutic drugs and minimizes their side effects.