Design and fabrication of bioelectrodes for microbial bioelectrochemical systems
Microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) interconvert electrical and chemical energy, enabling electricity generation, hydrogen production, chemical synthesis, wastewater treatment, desalination, and remediation. The focus of this review is design of bioelectrodes for BESs. Desirable features are high conductivity, stability, and biocompatibility. We trace the history of bioelectrode design from nonporous designs to modern porous designs that are particle-based, fiber-based, or monolithic, and compare performance characteristics. The most promising strategies use porous structures conducive to microbial colonization and surface materials that promote efficient electron transfer.