Palladium catalysts supported on carbon–nitrogen composites for aqueous-phase hydrogenation of phenol
Phenol is an important component of pyrolysis bio-oil, especially from lignin, and the conversion of phenol is crucial for the production of biofuel. A cost-effective and efficient catalyst is worth developing in the hydrogenation of phenol. Herein we report that supported palladium nanoparticles on carbon–nitrogen composites with high surface area are highly active for aqueous-phase hydrogenation of phenol. The conversion of phenol was 91.7% within 1 h at 80 °C. Higher activity was achieved at higher temperature. The synergy between palladium nanoparticles and the carbon–nitrogen composite support accelerated the hydrogenation of phenol, which clarified the crucial role played by the support. The hydrogenation of phenol highlights the potential of these catalysts for upgrading bio-oil.