Porous polymer catalysts with hierarchical structures
The emergence of porous organic polymers (POPs) has provided great opportunities for new applications in heterogeneous catalysis owing to their unprecedented intrinsic structural features such as high surface areas, extraordinary framework stabilities and chemically adjustable compositions. In this tutorial review, representative recent developments in the POPs-based catalysts with hierarchically porous structures are presented. Various strategies for the syntheses of hierarchically porous polymers including hard-templating, soft-templating and template-free approaches and the design of catalytically active porous polymers including post-modification, co-polymerization and self-polymerization have been discussed. In addition, their catalytic properties are compared. Finally, we emphasize the importance of the synthesis of hierarchically porous polymer based heterogeneous catalysts using sustainable routes under template-free and metal-free conditions.