PEG modified graphene oxide loaded with EALYLV peptides for inhibiting the aggregation of hIAPP associated with type-2 diabetes
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) was found as amyloid aggregate deposits in the pancreatic islets of patients with type-2 diabetes and studies showed that insulin and its derivatives were the potent inhibitors of hIAPP aggregation. However, several emerging therapies with this goal showed limited success due to the instability and inefficiency of insulin derivatives. Nanosized graphene oxide (nGO) possesses high stability and affinity toward aromatic rings. In this study, an insulin-derived peptide, EALYLV, was stabilized by loading on nGO@PEG to inhibit aggregation and hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity. The results showed that nGO@PEG@EALYLV (abbreviated as nGO@PEG@E) can effectively inhibit the aggregation of hIAPP via electrostatic adsorption and specific binding to the active sites of hIAPP. We further evaluated the protective effect of nGO@PEG@E on INS-1 cells in the presence of hIAPP. Treatment with nGO@PEG@E could significantly elevate the viability of INS-1 cells, decrease the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential. All the results indicated that nGO@PEG@E could inhibit the aggregation of hIAPP, which reduces its cytotoxicity.