Periodically tailored titania nanotubes for enhanced drug loading and releasing performances
The structural engineering of titania nanotubes (TNTs) using electrochemical anodization was performed to generate periodically modulated (p-TNTs) internal structures by applying an oscillatory voltage during the anodization process to demonstrate their improved drug-loading and drug-releasing properties. Drug loading and in vitro drug release studies compared with conventional TNTs with flat structures suggested considerable improvement with increased drug loading, reduced burst release and extended drug release for over 2 weeks. Furthermore, p-TNTs arrays were fractured by ultrasonication into liberated TNTs capsules and their potential applications as drug micro/nano-carriers for targeted and localized drug delivery is proposed. The presented electrochemical approach for structural engineering of TNTs provides new prospects in designing TNTs drug releasing implants with advanced drug-loading/release characteristics for localized drug delivery. Such implant modifications can further be tailored to cater for various implant challenges and bone therapies like: inflammation, infection and poor implant integration.