Future generations of cathode materials: an automotive industry perspective
Future generations of electrified vehicles require driving ranges of at least 300 miles to successfully penetrate the mass consumer market. A significant improvement in the energy density of lithium batteries is mandatory, maintaining at the same time similar, or improved, rate capability, lifetime, cost, and safety. Several new cathode materials have been claimed over the last decade to allow for this energy improvement. The possibility that some of them will find application in the future automotive batteries is critically evaluated here by first considering their theoretical and experimentally demonstrated energy densities at the material level. For selected candidates, the energy density at the automotive battery cell level for electric vehicle applications is calculated using an in-house developed software. For the selected cathodes, literature results concerning their power capability and lifetime are also discussed with reference to the automotive targets.