Carbon dots supported upon N-doped TiO2 nanorods applied into sodium and lithium ion batteries†
N-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated with carbon dots with enhanced electrical-conductivity and faster charge-transfer have been fabricated utilizing a simple hydrothermal reaction process involving TiO2 powders (P25) and NaOH in the presence of carbon dots followed by ion exchange and calcination treatments. Due to the merits of the carbon dots, doping and nanostructures, the as-designed N–TiO2/C-dots composite utilized as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries can sustain a capacity of 185 mA h g−1 with 91.6% retention even at a high rate of 10 C over 1000 cycles. It is interesting to note that the ratios of capacitive charge capacity during such high rates for the N–TiO2/C-dots composite electrodes are higher than those at low rates, which likely explains the observed excellent rate capabilities. In contrast to lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries have gained more interest in energy storage grids because of the greater abundance and lower cost of sodium-containing precursors. The as-obtained N–TiO2/C-dots composites reported here and utilized as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, including substantial cycling stabilities (the capacity retention ratios after 300 cycles at 5 C is 93.6%) and remarkable rate capabilities (176 mA h g−1 at 5 C, 131 mA h g−1 at 20 C); such performances are the greatest ever reported to date over other structured TiO2 or TiO2 composite materials.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Highlighting materials research in the UK for energy and sustainability