Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 3, 2015
Previous Article Next Article

Lithium–sulfur batteries: from liquid to solid cells

Author affiliations


Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2500 vs. ∼500 W h kg−1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li–S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li–S batteries and key challenges associated with conventional liquid cells. We then introduce the most recent progress in liquid systems, including sulfur positive electrodes, lithium negative electrodes, and electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. We also discuss the importance of this game-changing shift, moving from traditional liquid cells to recently developed solid cells, with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li–S batteries are presented.

Graphical abstract: Lithium–sulfur batteries: from liquid to solid cells

Back to tab navigation

Article information

10 Sep 2014
11 Nov 2014
First published
11 Nov 2014

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015,3, 936-958
Article type
Review Article
Author version available

Lithium–sulfur batteries: from liquid to solid cells

Z. Lin and C. Liang, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015, 3, 936
DOI: 10.1039/C4TA04727C

Social activity

Search articles by author