Fluctuations of particle motion in granular avalanches – from the microscopic to the macroscopic scales
In this study, we have investigated the fluctuations of particle motion, i.e. the non-affine motion, during the avalanche process, discovering a rich dynamic from the microscopic to the macroscopic scales. We find that there is a strong correlation between the magnitude of the velocity fluctuation and the velocity magnitude in the spatial and temporal domains. The possible connection between this finding and the theory of the shear transformation zones is discussed based on the direct measurement of the T1 events. In addition, the velocity magnitude of the system and the stress fluctuations of the system are strongly temporally correlated. Our finding will pose challenges to the development of more rigorous theories to describe avalanche dynamics based on the microscopic approach. Moreover, our finding presents a plausible mechanism of particle entrainment in a simple system.