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Issue 129, 2015

Stability enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices utilizing partially reduced graphene oxide as the hole transport layer: nanoscale insight into structural/interfacial properties and aging effects

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Abstract

A powerful insight into the structural and interfacial properties of post-fabricated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is reported. The nanoscale local structure of integrated devices is revealed by combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) investigations. A comparative study is performed on devices using graphene oxide (GO) as the hole transporting layer (HTL) and reference PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)) devices. Spatially resolved simultaneous XRD/XRF measurements with nanometre resolution on pristine and aged states of the devices evidence the occurrence of morphological modifications in the poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative (PCDTBT):fullerene derivative (PC71BM) active layer, induced by thermal reduction and solar illumination. Additionally, the results indicate that OPV devices with partially reduced graphene oxide (pr-GO) used as the HTL, exhibit photovoltaic characteristics similar to the PEDOT:PSS based devices but with a significant durability enhancement. This is attributed to the protecting role of the pr-GO film against humidity and indium diffusion from the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode into the photoactive layer. As a result, the devices fabricated with pr-GO-HTL retain approximately 65% of their initial power conversion efficiency over 20 hours, while the efficiency of the reference devices degrades to 45% of the initial value.

Graphical abstract: Stability enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices utilizing partially reduced graphene oxide as the hole transport layer: nanoscale insight into structural/interfacial properties and aging effects

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
13 Nov 2015
Accepted
08 Dec 2015
First published
10 Dec 2015

RSC Adv., 2015,5, 106930-106940
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Stability enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices utilizing partially reduced graphene oxide as the hole transport layer: nanoscale insight into structural/interfacial properties and aging effects

B. Paci, G. Kakavelakis, A. Generosi, V. Rossi Albertini, J. P. Wright, C. Ferrero, D. Konios, E. Stratakis and E. Kymakis, RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106930 DOI: 10.1039/C5RA24010G

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