Titanate and titania nanostructured materials for environmental and energy applications: a review
Nanosized TiO2-based materials with unique structural and functional properties have already led to breakthroughs in various applications including photocatalysis, adsorption, lithium-ion batteries, etc. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art development of fabrication strategies of titanate/titania nanostructures and their corresponding environmental and energy applications. First, the structural features of titanate and titania and their correlation are explained in great detail. After which, recent research efforts on the development of multi-dimensional titanate materials are summarized. Following that, the applications of titanate/titania nanomaterials in the fields of adsorbents, photocatalysis, lithium-ion batteries, photovoltaics, electrochromic devices, self-cleaning and oil–water separation are reviewed. Finally, the future perspectives for the nanostructured titanate and titania are discussed. Continuous development in this area is essential to endow TiO2-based materials with advanced functionality and improved performance for practical applications.