Exfoliated-SnS2 restacked on graphene as a high-capacity, high-rate, and long-cycle life anode for sodium ion batteries†
Designed as a high-capacity, high-rate, and long-cycle life anode for sodium ion batteries, exfoliated-SnS2 restacked on graphene is prepared by the hydrolysis of lithiated SnS2 followed by a facile hydrothermal method. Structural and morphological characterizations demonstrate that ultrasmall SnS2 nanoplates (with a typical size of 20–50 nm) composed of 2–5 layers are homogeneously decorated on the surface of graphene, while the hybrid structure self-assembles into a three-dimensional (3D) network architecture. The obtained SnS2/graphene nanocomposite delivers a remarkable capacity as high as 650 mA h g−1 at a current density of 200 mA g−1. More impressively, the capacity can reach 326 mA h g−1 even at 4000 mA g−1 and remains stable at ∼610 mA h g−1 without fading up to 300 cycles when the rate is brought back to 200 mA g−1. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergetic effects between the ultrasmall SnS2 and the highly conductive graphene network. The unique structure can simultaneously facilitate Na+ ion diffusion, provide more reaction sites, and suppress aggregation and volume fluctuation of the active materials during prolonged cycling.