Ultratrace detection of toxic heavy metal ions found in water bodies using hydroxyapatite supported nanocrystalline ZSM-5 modified electrodes†
Silver ion-exchanged nanocrystalline ZSM-5 (Ag-Nano-ZSM-5) and ZSM-5 (Ag-ZSM-5) materials were synthesized. Hydroxyapatite supported on zeolite materials were prepared by incubating the Ag ion-exchanged zeolite materials in simulated body fluid at 310 K. The resultant materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction, N2-adsorption and Scanning/Transmission electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite supported on Ag ion-exchanged zeolite modified glassy carbon electrodes were fabricated and investigated as electrochemical sensors in the detection of toxic heavy metal ions (Cd2+, Pb2+, As3+, and Hg2+). The results show that the developed sensor exhibited excellent electro-catalytic activity, sensitivity, and stability toward the detection of selected heavy metal ions. The analytical application of the developed sensor is shown in the determination of heavy metal ions found in different water bodies.