Applications of graphene and related nanomaterials in analytical chemistry
Graphene has emerged as a rapidly rising star in the field of materials science since its successful preparation in 2004. Due to its distinguished electrical, chemical and optical performances, graphene and its derivatives have also generated huge interest in analytical chemistry. This article critically and comprehensively reviews the emerging graphene-based electrochemical analysis, photochemical analysis and extraction. We present a review of the current literature concerning the electrochemical applications and advancements of graphene in the detection of metal ions, gases, nucleic acids, proteins, cells, bacteria and other molecules. Meanwhile, we summarize the application of graphene in photoanalysis (including graphene-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors and optical sensors). In addition, we comment on the application and advantages of graphene in extraction. We emphasize the unique roles and advantages of graphene materials used in analytical chemistry.