Depth profiling of low energy ion implantations in Si and Ge by means of micro-focused grazing emission X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence
Depth-profiling measurements by means of synchrotron radiation based grazing XRF techniques, i.e., grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF), present a promising approach for the non-destructive, sub-nanometer scale precision characterization of ultra shallow ion-implantations. The nanometer resolution is of importance with respect to actual semiconductor applications where the down-scaling of the device dimensions requires the doping of shallower depth ranges. The depth distributions of implanted ions can be deduced from the intensity dependence of the detected X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signal from the dopant atoms on either the grazing emission angle of the emitted X-rays (GEXRF), or the grazing incidence angle of the incident X-rays (GIXRF). The investigated sample depth depends on the grazing angle and can be varied from a few to several hundred nanometers. The GEXRF setup was equipped with a focusing polycapillary half-lens to allow for laterally resolved studies. The dopant depth distribution of the investigated low-energy (energy range from 1 keV up to 8 keV) P, In and Sb ion-implantations in Si or Ge wafers were reconstructed from the GEXRF data by using two different approaches, one with and one without a priori knowledge about the bell-shaped dopant depth distribution function. The results were compared to simulations and the trends predicted by theory were found to be well reproduced. The experimental GEXRF findings were moreover verified for selected samples by GIXRF.