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Issue 11, 2015
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Solvent free depolymerization of Kraft lignin to alkyl-phenolics using supported NiMo and CoMo catalysts

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Abstract

The catalytic hydrotreatment of Kraft lignin using sulfided NiMo and CoMo catalysts on different acidic and basic supports (Al2O3, ZSM-5, activated carbon (AC) and MgO-La2O3) was studied in the absence of a solvent. Experiments were carried out in a batch set-up at a reaction temperature of 350 °C, 4 h and 100 bar initial H2 pressure. The catalysts before and after reaction were characterized by X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia/CO2, BET surface area and scanning electron microscopy. The liquid products were fractionated and analyzed extensively by different techniques such as GPC, GC-MS-FID, GC-TCD, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Two dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC-FID) was applied to identify distinct groups of compounds (aromatics, alkylphenolics, alkanes) after reaction, and product quantification was performed based on this method. Catalyst activity is a function of the support and increased in the order Al2O3 < ZSM-5 < AC = MgO-La2O3. In addition, the support also largely influenced the extent of depolymerization and monomer yield. The highest lignin oil yields were obtained using the sulfided NiMo supported on activated carbon and MgO-La2O3. The highest total monomer yield 26.4 wt% on lignin intake, which included 15.7 wt% alkyl-phenolics was obtained using the sulfided NiMo/MgO-La2O3 catalyst.

Graphical abstract: Solvent free depolymerization of Kraft lignin to alkyl-phenolics using supported NiMo and CoMo catalysts

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
18 Jul 2015
Accepted
04 Aug 2015
First published
04 Aug 2015

Green Chem., 2015,17, 4921-4930
Article type
Paper
Author version available

Solvent free depolymerization of Kraft lignin to alkyl-phenolics using supported NiMo and CoMo catalysts

C. R. Kumar, N. Anand, A. Kloekhorst, C. Cannilla, G. Bonura, F. Frusteri, K. Barta and H. J. Heeres, Green Chem., 2015, 17, 4921
DOI: 10.1039/C5GC01641J

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