Ultrasound enhanced laccase applications
Laccases (EC 22.214.171.124) are copper-containing enzymes that oxidize a variety of phenolics and other aromatic compounds through a radical-catalyzed mechanism. The use of mediators acting as vehicles for electron transfer can expand the range of laccase substrates to other classes of chemical compounds. Ultrasound irradiation through a liquid medium generates reactive free radical species, promoting a local turbulence/liquid microcirculation and enhancing the mass transport process rates. Combined laccase and ultrasound processes lead to the reduction of the consumption of chemicals, energy and water, and these are presented as promising systems for reducing the environmental impact and the operational costs of conventional industrial processes.