A comprehensive review of sodium layered oxides: powerful cathodes for Na-ion batteries
The room temperature Na-ion secondary battery has been under focus lately due to its feasibility to compete against the already well-established Li-ion secondary battery. Although there are many obstacles to overcome before the Na-ion battery becomes commercially available, recent research discoveries corroborate that some of the cathode materials for the Na-ion battery have indeed indisputable advantages over its Li-ion counterparts. In this publication, a comprehensive review of layered oxides (NaTMO2, TM = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and a mixture of 2 or 3 elements) as a viable Na-ion battery cathode is presented. Single TM systems are well characterized not only for their electrochemical performance but also for their structural transitions during the cycle. Binary TM systems are investigated in order to address issues regarding low reversible capacity, capacity retention, operating voltage, and structural stability. As a consequence, some materials already have reached an energy density of 520 mW h g−1, which is comparable to that of LiFePO4. Furthermore, some ternary TM systems retained more than 72% of their capacity along with over 99.7% Coulombic efficiency for 275 cycles. The goal of this review is to present the development of Na layered oxide materials in the past as well as the state of the art today in order to emphasize the compatibility and durability of layered oxides as powerful candidates for Na-ion battery cathode materials.
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