Metal–organic frameworks and inorganic nanoflowers: a type of emerging inorganic crystal nanocarrier for enzyme immobilization
In recent years, enzyme immobilization on metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and inorganic crystal nanoflowers has generated a lot of research interest due to their great promise of enhancing enzyme stability, activity and even selectivity. In the past few years, many studies have focused on this topic to prepare various types of enzyme–MOF and enzyme–nanoflower composites. In this review, we will introduce the preparation and special properties of these newly developed enzyme–inorganic crystal composites. We summarized the preparation methods as physical adsorption, covalent conjugation and self-assembly. The advantages and limitations of each method will also be discussed in this review.