Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 23, 2015
Previous Article Next Article

Materials for suspension (semi-solid) electrodes for energy and water technologies

Author affiliations


Suspension or semi-solid electrodes have recently gained increased attention for large-scale applications such as grid energy storage, capacitive water deionization, and wastewater treatment. A suspension electrode is a multiphase material system comprised of an active (charge storing) material suspended in ionic solution (electrolyte). Gravimetrically, the electrolyte is the majority component and aids in physical transport of the active material. This principle enables, for the first time, scalability of electrochemical energy storage devices (supercapacitors and batteries) previously limited to small and medium scale applications. This critical review describes the ongoing material challenges encompassing suspension-based systems. The research described here combines classical aspects of electrochemistry, colloidal science, material science, fluid mechanics, and rheology to describe ion and charge percolation, adsorption of ions, and redox charge storage processes in suspension electrodes. This review summarizes the growing inventory of material systems, methods and practices used to characterize suspension electrodes, and describes universal material system properties (rheological, electrical, and electrochemical) that are pivotal in the design of high performing systems. A discussion of the primary challenges and future research directions is included.

Graphical abstract: Materials for suspension (semi-solid) electrodes for energy and water technologies

Back to tab navigation

Article information

03 Apr 2015
First published
28 Sep 2015

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2015,44, 8664-8687
Article type
Review Article
Author version available

Materials for suspension (semi-solid) electrodes for energy and water technologies

K. B. Hatzell, M. Boota and Y. Gogotsi, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2015, 44, 8664
DOI: 10.1039/C5CS00279F

Social activity

Search articles by author