Recent advancements in Pt and Pt-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction
Developing highly efficient catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is key to the fabrication of commercially viable fuel cell devices and metal–air batteries for future energy applications. Herein, we review the most recent advances in the development of Pt-based and Pt-free materials in the field of fuel cell ORR catalysis. This review covers catalyst material selection, design, synthesis, and characterization, as well as the theoretical understanding of the catalysis process and mechanisms. The integration of these catalysts into fuel cell operations and the resulting performance/durability are also discussed. Finally, we provide insights into the remaining challenges and directions for future perspectives and research.