The future of organic photovoltaics
Increasing global demand for energy, along with dwindling fossil fuel resources and a better understanding of the hidden costs associated with these energy sources, have spurred substantial political, academic, and industrial interest in alternative energy resources. Photovoltaics based on organic semiconductors have emerged as promising low-cost alternatives for electricity generation that relies on sunlight. In this tutorial review we discuss the relevance of these organic photovoltaics beginning with some of the economic drivers for these technologies. We then examine the basic properties of these devices, including operation and materials requirements, in addition to presenting the development of the field from a historical perspective. Potential future directions are also briefly discussed. This tutorial review is intended to be an essential overview of the progress of the field, in addition to aiding in the discussion of the future of OPV technologies.