Calixpyrroles: versatile molecular containers with ion transport, recognition, and molecular switching functions
Over the last two decades, calixpyrroles have attracted considerable attention as molecular containers. Used in this capacity, they have been exploited as strong and selective receptors and as extractants for both anions and ion pairs. More recently, calixpyrroles have found application as carriers, systems capable of transporting ions and ion pairs across lipophilic membranes. The use of calixpyrroles as building blocks for the preparation of stimulus-responsive material has also been demonstrated. In this latter context, as well as others, the conformational switching, from 1,3-alternate to cone upon anion binding has been exploited to control both structure and substrate binding. In this Review, we describe recent results involving the use of calixpyrrole systems for ion transport. Also summarised is work devoted to the formation of higher order supramolecular aggregates and studies of their response to external stimuli. Taken together, these examples serve to highlight new uses of calixpyrroles as molecular containers.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Molecular Containers