π-Electron rich small molecule sensors for the recognition of nitroaromatics
Selective and discriminative detection of –NO2 containing high energy organic compounds such as picric acid (PA), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) has become a challenging task due to concerns over national security, criminal investigations and environment protections. Among various known detection methods, fluorescence techniques have gained special attention in recent time. A wide variety of fluorescent chemosensors have been developed for nitroaromatic explosive detection. In this review article, we provide an overview of the recent developments made in small molecule-based turn-off fluorescent sensors for nitroaromatic explosives with special focus on organic and H-bonded supramolecular sensors. The fluorescent sensors discussed in this review are classified and organized according to their functionality and their recognition of nitroaromatics by fluorescence quenching.